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Chaya is a leaf well known in Nigeria as ‘Hospital Too far’ and ‘Miracle Leaf’ is a leafy vegetable that originally comes from Mexico but can be well found in the southeastern part of Nigeria. M. oppositifolius extracts were found to contain alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, and phenolic compounds, with higher concentrations residing in the leaves than in the roots [62,63]. RTA is an N-glycoside hydrolase composed of 267 amino acids [75]. San Andrés Larrea, ... C. Rodriguez Fernández, in, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Phylogenetic Aspects of the Evolution of C4 Photosynthesis, Natural Products Structural Diversity-II Secondary Metabolites: Sources, Structures and Chemical Biology, Gordon M. Cragg, ... David G.I. Animals should be treated for any evidence for myoglobinuria and renal failure. The shrublike ornamental castor plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), is thought to be indigenous to northeast Africa and Asia but is now distributed worldwide. The kidneys have three basic mechanisms of Reply. Kingston, in, Physical, Hematological, and Histopathological Signs of Toxicity Induced by African Medicinal Plants, Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, Armando E. González-Stuart, José O. Rivera, in, Antioxidant Activity of African Medicinal Plants, Mikhail Olugbemiro Nafiu, ... Mutiu Idowu Kazeem, in, Toxicity and Beneficial Effects of Some African Plants on the Reproductive System, Yakubu Musa Toyin, ... Akanji Musbau Adewunmi, in, Pest Control Agents from Natural Products, Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition), Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2009, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Copyright © All rights reserved. The seed of this tree is commonly known around the world by a wide variety of common or vernacular names, including the following: Akhoda, Avellano, Belgaum walnut, Candleberry, Country walnut, Dau lai, Indian walnut, Jamaican walnut, Kukui, Lumbang oil, Shi Li Zi, Tuitui, Árbol de Indias, Nois des Moluques, Nuez de la India, Nogal de la India, Otaheite walnut, Palo de la India, Palo de nuez, Semilla de Brasil, Singapore nut, and Varnish tree.16,17,45–47, Mikhail Olugbemiro Nafiu, ... Mutiu Idowu Kazeem, in Medicinal Plant Research in Africa, 2013. efo iyana ipaja, or efo Jerusalem (Yoruba) is commonly found growing in western Nigeria. Or, drink it like a tea. Kingston, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010, Plants of the Euphorbiaceae family and particularly members of the Euphorbia genus have long been known to yield latexes with irritant and carcinogenic properties and these properties have been associated with diterpenes of the phorbol class.113 Members of the Euphorbia genus also contain diterpenes with other skeletons, among them the ingenane derivative PEP005 (38).114,115, The sap of the plant Euphorbia peplus is used in Australia for the treatment of skin cancers and there is preliminary evidence to support its efficacy.116 The active agent of this sap was identified as PEP005117 and topical applications of this compound, also known as PEP005, cured a series of subcutaneous mouse and human tumors on mice. San Andrés Larrea, ... C. Rodriguez Fernández, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the crude extracts in hexane and methanol were evaluated by the β-carotene linoleate model system and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema animal model [62]. In cases where castor beans or crude ricin preparations are the suspected poisons, ricinine can also serve as a biomarker (see, for example, Mouser et al., 2007). August 1, 2020. Ẹni tó ńbẹ̀rù àti á¹£ubú, àti dìde á nira fún un . Miss. [Tribes of Euphorbioideae follow Webster, G. L. (1994). THE WONDERS OF THE VEGETABLE UTAZI(EFO – AROKEKE) & IT’S HEALTH BENEFITS. 218–245 genera/ca. Chaya a wonderful source of protein, vitamins, calcium, and iron and also a rich source of antioxidants. Improves glucose metabolism and prevents diabetes. RTB is a lectin composed of 262 amino acids that is able to bind terminal galactose residues on cell surfaces [77]. 127 Houses in Ipaja (Lagos) from ₦ 96,000. ( Log Out / CDLI was formerly Ipaja Community Link which was established by Development Impact For Nigeria (DIFN) a UK based Diaspora led development agency working in Nigeria mainly with a view to encourage the UK Diaspora to partner in development projects in Nigeria primarily through volunteering. Ricinus communis or castor bean is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide (Foster et al., 2010). Chaya leaf with a botanical name Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, also known as Tree Spinach, some called it Miracle Plant, “hospital too far in Pidgin”, Iyana-Ipaja in Yoruba, Ugu-Oyibo in Igbo,also called ‘ogwu obala’, belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae, is a large, fast-growing leafy perennial shrub that is believed to have originated in the Yucatan Peninsla of Mexico It has succulent stems which exude a … For example, it is an essentially harmless laxative, an industrial raw material, and an engine lubricant. This plant is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India but is widespread throughout tropical regions and is widely used as an ornamental plant [66,67]. The stamens are 1–∞, distinct or connate. The stems are succulent and cactuslike in some (e.g., some Euphorbias). The large (32 cm long and 30 cm wide) palmate lobed leaves are alternately arranged. TRANSLATION Whoever is scared of falling down, will find it difficult to... YORUBA PROVERB Àìrìn jìnnà làìrí abuké ọ̀kẹ́rẹ́; báa bá dé igbó tó tó igbó, àá rí ẹranko tó ńtiro TRANSLATION Your inability to travel far... Yoruba Proverb Ohun tó ṣe àkàlàmàgbò tó fi dẹ́kun ẹ̀rin rínrín, tó bá ṣe igúnnugún, á wokoko mọ́ orí ẹyin ni. The yearly production of castor oil seed exceeds over 1 million metric tonnes (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2009). G. Whole plant, showing enlarged stipular spines. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. It is an ornamental, evergreen, droughtdeciduous shrub of 3–5 m tall. Fatemeh Maghuly, ... Margit Laimer, in Applied Plant Genomics and Biotechnology, 2015. F. Close-up of cyathia, having red bracts. Although the plant is mainly cultivated as food it has . It has three structural domains with approximately 50% of the polypeptide arranged into alpha-helices and beta-sheets [76]. Ricin toxin A chain (RTA) and ricin toxin B chain (RTB) are of similar molecular weights, approximately 32 and 34 kDa, respectively. Iyana Ipaja Area in Lagos during a rainy season. Only a preliminary phylogenetic study has been published, but this suggests that four of the subfamilies are monophyletic and that the Phyllanthoideae is paraphyletic (Levin and Simpson, 1994; Fig. Cassava is adapted to warm humid lowland tropics and grows in areas where the mean annual temperature is higher than 20°C with annual rainfall between 500 and 800 mm (Puonti-Kaerlas, 1998). It was spread by Portuguese seafarers to West Africa in the form of flour and first cultivated in 1558 in the Congo basin (Carter et al., 1995), from where it spread to other countries like Guinea, Sierra Leone, Angolan Coast and Congo River, Mozambique and Kenya (Carter et al., 1995). The shoot and leaves of C. aconitifolius are used as laxative, diuretic, circulation and lactation stimulants. The plant is also used in African folk medicine in the treatment of warts, cold tumors, and indurations of mammary glands, corns, and moles [70–72]. It is the fourth most important source of carbohydrates for human consumption in the tropics, after rice, sugarcane and maize (Bellotti et al., 1999), and is also a cash crop, feed crop and a raw material for industrial uses like starch, alcohol and biofuel production (Jansson et al., 2009). Miss. K. Close-up of male flower, showing junction between filament and pedicel. The major fatty acids in Jatropha oil consist of monounsaturated oleic (44%), polyunsaturated linoleic (33.3%) and saturated palmitic (14.7%) and stearic (6.7%) acids (Devappa et al., 2010). Chaya is excellent in knocking off free radicals and stemming the harm on vital organs resulting from oxidative stress, The natual essence in the leaves helps resolves vaginal issues and boosts vitality in men, HEALTH BENEFIT OF CHAYA(IYANA-IPAJA IN YORUBA). Female and male flower, removed. Economic importance includes Aleurites fordii, tung oil and A. moluccana, candlenut oil; Hevea brasiliensis, the major source of natural rubber; Manihot esculentus, cassava/manioc, a very important food crop and the source of tapioca; Ricinus communis, the source of castor bean oil and the deadly poison ricin; and various oil, timber, medicinal, dye, and ornamental plants. Called ‘efo Iyana-ipaja’ by the Yorubas and ‘ugu oyibo’ by the Igbos, some of its health benefits are: Cures skin blisters and scratches Blisters on the skin can be cured by squeezing the juice from the leaves and applying to the affected skin. Because the leaves have been boiled, the liquid is safe to use or drink. Succulent Euphorbia species are major components of plant communities in southern Africa, as well as important ornamental cultivars. G,H.Euphorbia grandicornis. chaya should never be cooked or stored in aluminium foil as it can produce a toxic reaction. Chaya shoots and leaves have been taken as a laxative, diuretic, circulation stimulant, to improve digestion, to stimulate lactation, and to harden the fingernails. Ann. J. Euphorbiaceae or the spurge family is one of the largest and genetically diverse plant family with nearly 322 genera and 8,910 species, ranging from large woody trees to simple weeds (Mwine and Van Damme, 2011) and includes economically important species like Jatropha curcas, Manihot esculenta (cassava), Ricinus communis (castor bean) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) (Mwine and Van Damme, 2011). It is an ornamental, evergreen, droughtdeciduous shrub of 3–5 m tall. Traditionally, Chaya has been recommended for a number of ailments including diabetes, obesity, kidney stones, hemorrhoids, acne, and eye problems. Chaya shoots and leaves have been taken as a laxative, diure... Lagos State, Kosofe, YESTERDAY, 17:30 – Feeds, Supplements & Seeds 2. Historically castor bean has been cultivated as an agricultural crop for the oil derived from its seeds containing 40%–60% toxic oil with numerous industrial and cosmetic uses (Foster et al., 2010). The flowers are unisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic, bracteate in some, hypogynous. Synopsis of the genera and suprageneric taxa of Euphorbiaceae. This is exactly what summarizes the nefarious activities of a guy that works with Otunba Mike Adenuga Jnr’s telecoms company, Globacom. The toxic and proteinaceous properties of ricin were first established in 1887 by Stillmark at the university in Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia), while the recognition of the specific binding properties of ricin by Ehrlich laid the foundation of immunology. The Euphorbiaceae were traditionally classified into five subfamilies: Phyllanthoideae, Oldfieldioideae, Acalyphoideae, Crotonoideae, and Euphorbioideae. The goals are to improve perfusion by aggressive fluid resuscitation, vasopressor therapy, and replenishing electrolytes. among the vegetables, I realize that the rate at which people consume Elegede is very high during the rainy season. The leaves are commonly eaten as vegetable (5). The seeds are used for making jewelry and rosaries. Although the plant is mainly cultivated as food it has continued to be an important medicinal plant. cialis, essay writing pollution college application essay about yourself essay 3rd grade, best essay website persuasive essay topis pay to write paper, freedom writer essay buying essays online wake county schools assignment, if you contract hiv from sex. Study Background: Cnidoscolous aconitifolius leaf (Chaya; Efo Iyana ipaja in Yoruba language) is a common vegetable plant served as sauce and has many traditional health benefit claims such as treatment of alcoholism, insomnia, gout, scorpion stings, memory and vision impairment owing to its phytochemical and phytonutrient constituents. No thought is given to the medicinal uses of its leaves. However, Ricinus communis is classified as the most poisonous plant on earth for humans [24]. When the pepper mix has boiled through, in a pot, heat up palm oil and fry chopped onions till it softens, then you add the pepper and fry till it starts to take on the look of well fried stew. Without a phylogeny, it is impossible to determine the number of C4 origins or the C3 sister taxa to the C4 species. H. Cyathia. Cnidoscolous aconitifolius (Miller) I. M. Johnston (Euphorbiaceae) known as tree spinach (English), efo iyana ipaja, or efo Jerusalem (Yoruba) is commonly found growing in western parts of Nigeria. HEALTH BENEFIT OF CHAYA(EFO IYANA-IPAJA) 5 months ago yorubawiki . Euphorbiaceae. spinach (English), efo iyana ipaja, or efo Jerusalem (Yoruba) is commonly found growing in western part of Nigeria. Confirm. Cnidoscolous aconitifolius (Miller) I. M. Johnston (Euphorbiaceae) known as tree spinach (English), efo iyana ipaja, or efo Jerusalem (Yoruba) is commonly found growing in western parts of Nigeria. It is a seed oil plant that can vary greatly in its growth habit and appearance. Cassava is grown as a staple starch food crop on over 20 mio ha worldwide; major producers of cassava include Nigeria, Congo, Angola, Tanzania, Ghana and Mozambique in Africa; Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and Cambodia in Asia and Brazil in South America (FAOSTAT, 2014). The family Euphorbiaceae includes 317 genera grouped in five subfamilies (Webster, 1994). In vitro study indicated that the methanolic extract of M. oppositifolius (MEMO) leaves failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by AAPH, while BHA offered 55.5% inhibition [62]. It is used in folk medicine and herbal preparations for the treatment of dysentery, worms, and malaria. D.Euphorbia obesa. Translation If what took... Àjọjẹ ò dùn bí ẹnìkan ò bá ní; ọjọ́ a ní la ńṣe àjọjẹ. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities of the plant was demonstrated [66,73]. Thin-layer chromatographic analyses of the extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds in the crude extracts, two of which were flavonoids. Relationships among members of the Euphorbiaceae, based on morphological characters [Levin, G. A., and Simpson, M. G. (1994). Yakubu Musa Toyin, ... Akanji Musbau Adewunmi, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 2014. The seed cake is nutrient rich and therefore suitable as fertilizer (Ramkat, 2013) and has a crude protein content of 68%, which is far higher than in soybean (45.7%) (Aregheore et al., 2003). The operatives of the Rapid Response Squad, RRS, of the Lagos Police Command and the Iyana Ipaja Area Command on Wednesday morning arrested 20 suspected hoodlums over gang war which erupted at Iyana-Ipaja area of Lagos, Southwest Nigeria on Tuesday. Its leaf, root, and seed oil are used in inflammation treatment, liver disorders, hypoglycemic, and as a laxative [68,69] [66]. The fruit is a schizocarp, drupe, berry, or samara. The leaves are simple, rarely trifoliolate or palmate, spiral, opposite, or whorled, stipules generally present, these sometimes modified as glands or spines (e.g., many succulent Euphorbias). Title documents: c of o price: n30m asking. The median lethal dose (LD50) of ricin is around 22 µg/kg in humans if exposure is from injection or inhalation while oral exposure to this lectin is less toxic (though still toxic) and a lethal dose can be up to 20–30 mg/kg [78]. István Ujváry, in Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition), 2010. The tree (Aleurites moluccanus—Euphorbiaceae) is originally from Indonesia and the Moluccas Islands, hence one of its common names, but is now cultivated in South America, especially in Brazil.17,44 Various ads on the Internet erroneously mention that this tree is native to the Amazon region. Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), commonly known as castor oil plant, is a soft wooden small tree developed throughout tropics and warm temperature regions [66]. Its mechanism of action was identified as a protein kinase C (PKC) activator and it also had potent antileukemic effects in addition to its topical effects.118 Another study of the differential effects of PEP005 on PKCα and PKCδ suggested that the drug induced apoptosis through this pathway, suggesting that targeting PKC isoforms is a valid approach to cancer therapy.119 These promising results have led to the initiation of clinical trials and topical PEP005 is in Phase II development for the treatment of actinic keratoses and basal cell carcinoma.120, Victor Kuete, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 2014. In Tunisia, the plant is used as a contraceptive [66]. Chaya traditionally has been recommended for a number of ailments including diabetes, obesity, kidney stones, hemorrhoids, acne, and eye problems (Diaz-Bolio 1975). Hospital Too Far is a great source of protein, vitamins, calcium, and iron, ascorbic acid, and also a rich source of antioxidants. The genius Cnidoscolus consist of 40 or more species, but only chayamansa refers to the vegetable chaya. continued to be an im portant m edicinal p lant. Manihot esculenta or cassava is the only member of family cultivated for food (Patil and Fauquet, 2009). Purified castor oil has numerous uses. Anthers are longitudinal, poricidal, or transverse in dehiscence. A.Chamaesyce maculata, close-up of leaves and cyathia. (2005) for phylogenetic analyses. Chaya helps regulate blood pressure, improves circulation, is useful for digestion and disinfection and reduces cholesterol levels. YORUBA PROVERBBí ajá wọ agbádá iná, tí àmọ̀tẹ́kùn wọ ẹ̀wù ẹ̀jẹ̀,tí ológìnní sán àkísà mọ̀ ìdí, ẹgbẹ́ apẹranjẹ niwọ́n ńṣe. The large (32 cm long and 30 cm wide) palmate lobed leaves are alternately arranged. 6300 species. However, ingestion of seeds of the castor oil plant is rare [74]. Gard. See Wurdack and Chase, 2002) and Wurdack et al. It’s a good source of protein, vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and various minerals and enzymes that are beneficial for the body. In Yoruba, the Chaya leaf is called ‘Efo Iyana-Ipaja’ and the Igbos call it ‘Ugu Oyibo’. Mordi and Akanji (2012) reported that vegetables which contain a number of phytochemicals with reduce anti-nutrients exalt health promoting effect. In vivo, MEMO increased (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 408.0% and 295.0%, respectively. Some other names include Spinach Tree, Tread Softly, Cabbage Star, Chaya, Chicasquil, Devil nettle and Tree-spinach. Errrrrrr, just roughly blend in food processor or blender just and set that aside. In the western part of Nigeria it is called different names such as Efo Iyana-Ipaja and Efo Jerusalem, while in the Niger Delta of Nigeria; it has been nick-named “Hospital Too Far” because of its numerous health benefits. Iyana Ipaja (iyanaipaja) bus-stop. Add the cooking water to soups. Nectaries are often present. Interestingly, all accessions were reported to be toxic, while non toxic plants were found only in Southern Mexico (Ramkat, 2013; Valdes-Rodriguez et al., 2013). Organ damage includes fluid-filled lungs and edematous and swollen liver and kidneys. Hepatic and renal failures may occur. The Yoruba adage, which says, ‘Kokoro to nje efo, inu efo lo wa’, literarily meaning ‘the pest that is desecrating the flower, lives inside the flower’, is really phenomenal. It is also used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion, epilepsy, parasitic eye and kidney infections, as a diuretic and painkiller, and in treatment of paralysis, spasm, headache, and swelling. Genera not assigned to a subfamily are included in the polyphyletic Phyllanthoideae. (Everitt J.N. The calyx is usually aposepalous with 5 [rarely 0] sepals. commonly known as ‘Efo Jerusalem’ or ‘Efo Iyana Ipaja’; in Niger Delta areas of Nigeria it is known as ‘Hospital Too Far’; in English, it is called ‘tree spinach’ and Colloquially referred to as ‘Chaya’ [22, 50, 49, 3, 67]. Current consensus based on botanical, genetic and archaeological evidence supports that the southern border of the Amazon region was the first centre of cassava domestication (Olsen and Schaal, 2001). It is an evergreen, drought deciduous shrubs up to 6 m in height with alternate palmate lobed leaves. This dude is sure playing […] Ricin is considered as a chemical warfare. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Osundewap: 1. Its ability to thrive on degraded soils, tolerate drought and produce acceptable yield makes it of economic importance for tropical agriculture (Thresh and Cooter, 2005). Within the Euphorbiaceae as delimited here, Wurdack et al. MALPIGHIALES. Tree Spinach Or Chaya Leaves(Efo Iyana-ipaja Or Ugu Oyibo) ₦ 50. 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