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It was the introduction of plate tectonics in the 1960s that opened the way to envisaging metamorphism of oceanic crust and overlying sediments at sub‐Moho depths as a viable mechanism for the development of eclogitic mineral assemblages. Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins. Considering the worldwide decrease of magmatic activity from c. 2.45 to 2.2 Ga, Condie (1994b) argued that deep-seated heat generation processes in the Earth could not have been significantly lower during that period. The later stage (c. 1040–1020 Ma) involved widespread, dominantly upper amphibolite facies metamorphism within and beneath the duplex. Mesoproterozoic granulites of the Shillong–Meghalaya Plateau: Evidence of westward continuation of the Prydz Bay Pan-African suture into Northeastern India. In mafic rocks, the greenschist–amphibolite facies transition is designated by the appearance of hornblende and Ca-rich plagioclase and the disappearance of actinolite and Na-rich plagioclase. The most common mineral assemblage of granulite facies consists of antiperthitic plagioclase, alkali feldspar containing up to 50% albite and Al 2 O 3-rich pyroxenes. North of the Qinling Group are early Paleozoic active margin deposits of the Sino-Korean block. Summary of the assembly and breakup history of India-Antarctica through different stages. Infiltration‐driven dehydration and anatexis in granulite facies metagabbro, Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. If rocks are water saturated, they will, with a eutectic or eutectoid chemical composition near to granite, partially melt at P–T conditions in the muscovite + quartz stability field. The model of eastern India forming a part of the linear accretionary system encompassing south-eastern Laurentia and Baltica accounts for the magmatism and metamorphism recorded in the EGMB-south (Ongole Domain) between 1.72 and 1.6 Ga leading up to continent–continent collision at c. 1.6 Ga. Accretionary orogenesis might have been possibly terminated by the collision that developed between EGMB-central and Rayner Complex at c. 1 Ga (Mezger & Cosca, 1999). On the other hand, the style of crustal evolution during the Palaeoproterozoic differs significantly not only from that in the Archaean, but also from that in the Phanerozoic. The EGMB–Rayner complex was metamorphosed to granulite-facies as it was thrusted away from interior East Antarctica over the Archean Napier, Dharwar, and Bastar cratons, (3) At 771 Ma, India had moved 40 degrees of latitude away from Antarctica (Meert & Lieberman, 2008), and (4) by 0.55–0.50 Ga, India and Antarctica got reunited along the same suture but without ocean closure, possibly by transpressional movement along a transform fault. The cordierite‐bearing anatectic rocks of the higher Himalayan crystallines (eastern Nepal): low‐pressure anatexis, melt productivity, melt loss and the preservation of cordierite. Conditions during the formation of granitic magmas by crustal melting – hot or cold; drenched, damp or dry?. Thus, reaction textures in granulites may not reflect a single metamorphic episode recording a single P–T–t path (see Hollister & Crawford, 1986). 4.4a). In most of the Rodinian reconstructions, the eastern margin of India is juxtaposed against East Antarctica with the Rayner complex being correlated with the EGMB (e.g., Yoshida, Funaki, & Vitanage, 1992). Partial crustal melting beneath the Betic Cordillera (SE Spain): The case study of Mar Menor volcanic suite. naceous facies in the east and calcareous facies in the west (Heron, 1953; Sen, 1981). ... of granulites since the last granulite facies metamorphism. The segregations have modes consistent with the hypothesis that they are the solid and liquid products of the dehydration‐melting reactions: Bt + Sil + Qtz + PI = Grt ° Crd + Kfs + L (metapelite), Bt + Qtz + Pl = Opx + Kfs + L (biotite gneiss), and Hbl + Qtz = Opx + Cpx + Pl + L (metabasic gneiss). Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Rondebosch, 7700 South Africa. magmatism in an extensional tectonic setting Jeffrey M. Amato • Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California James E. Wright Department of Geology and Geophysics, Rice University, Houston, Texas Abstract. Local post-and anorogenic events (bimodal magmatism including gabbro–anorthosite and rapakivi–granite intrusions, and high-grade metamorphism) in different places within a reborn Palaeoproterozoic supercontinent developed at various times after termination of the collisional and accretionary processes, generally after 1.7 Ga. This proposal is supported by the recently obtained U–Pb zircon data from the EGMB-south, which preserves a record of a prolonged accretionary process that started in the arc-continent collision and culminated in the continent–continent collision (Pacific-type) during c. 1850–1600 Ma (Vijaya Kumar, Ernst, Leelanandam, Wooden, & Groves, 2009). Laixi Tong, Zhao Liu, Zheng-Xiang Li, Xiaohan Liu, Xin Zhou, Poly-phase metamorphism of garnet-bearing mafic granulite from the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica: P-T path, U-Pb ages and tectonic implications, Precambrian Research, 10.1016/j.precamres.2017.12.045, (2017). Golani (1995) divided the HHC or the Thimphu Group into three formations: Sure, Naspe, and Takhsang Formation. The boundaries 4, 5, and 6 in Figure 5 all mark the disappearance of plagioclase in mafic rocks towards higher pressures. Harald Fritz, Veronika Tenczer, Christoph Hauzenberger, Eckart Wallbrecher, Sospeter Muhongo Hot granulite nappes — Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa, Tectonophysics 477, no.3-4 3-4 (Nov 2009): 160-173. In metapelites, the amphibolite–granulite transition is considered by some workers to be indicated by the assemblage K-feldspar + Al-silicate forming at the expense of muscovite + quartz. P.G. Melting of the continental crust during orogenesis: the thermal, rheological, and compositional consequences of melt transport from lower to upper continental crustThis article is one of a selection of papers published in this Special Issue on the the theme Mid-crustal shear zone development under retrograde conditions: pressure–temperature–fluid constraints from the Kuckaus Mylonite Zone, Namibia. The Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic granulite-gneiss complexes of the northern East European Craton, including their tectonic setting, accompanying igneous and sedimentary rocks, character of metamorphism and deep structure are considered in this paper. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences. Fig. 2. Strain distribution within a km-scale, mid-crustal shear zone: The Kuckaus Mylonite Zone, Namibia. (2002) considered the Great Himalayan Sequence (GHS) as a core crustal channel of low-viscosity layer of 10–15 km thickness below the Tibetan plateau and extending for over 200 km. The granulite facies is determined by the lower temperature boundary of 700 +/− 50 °C and the pressure range of 2–15 kb. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Geochemical and Sr―Nd isotopic constraints on the origin of volcanic rocks from the northern Okinawa Trough. In part this mélange is probably coeval with the Haast Schist mineral growth, but it formed in the shallower parts of the accretionary wedge. Granulite facies metapelite, biotite gneiss and metabasic gneiss in Namaqualand contain coarse‐grained, discordant, unfoliated, anhydrous segregations, surrounded by a finer grained, foliated matrix that commonly includes hydrous minerals. These include metamorphosed amphibolite facies mafic volcanics, carbonates, and iron formation of the Hutchison Group >1860 Ma (Figure 2). (2002) made a division of this sequence into two segments with a thrust in between, the Kaghtang Thrust. Further volcanic rocks and metasedimentary rocks were deposited between ∼1765 and ∼1735 Ma (McGregor Volcanics, Moonabie Formation, and Wallaroo Group). Retrograde processes in migmatites and granulites revisited, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1314.1988.tb00430.x. In view of this, a feasible explanation for the inferred stability of the supercontinent during the early Palaeoproterozoic and for the scarcity of subduction events along its margins, may lie in the assumption of intensive recycling of juvenile oceanic and young arc-related crust within the oceanic hemisphere (cf. Seemingly disparate temperatures recorded in coexisting granulite facies lithologies. The long-term high-temperature history of the central Namaqua Metamorphic Complex: Evidence for a Mesoproterozoic continental back-arc in southern Africa. The lower amphibolite facies rocks contain kyanite–garnet–biotite–muscovite–plagioclase–quartz–staurolite assemblage, and the higher amphibolite facies rocks bear sillimanite–muscovite–garnet–plagioclase–quartz–staurolite assemblage, and the higher amphibolite facies rocks bear sillimanite–muscovite–garnet–plagioclase–quartz ± kyanite ± staurolite ± K-feldspar. The duration of granulite (G) and ultra–high temperature (UHT) conditions in regional metamorphism is critical to arguments regarding the tectonic settings of … 4.4b). Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) U–Pb isotope analyses of zircon from a charnockite and a charnockite-hosted leucosome reveal that the felsic magmatism occurred at 2.53 Ga, which was followed by high-grade metamorphism and anatexis at 2.48 Ga (Clark, Collins, Kinny, Timms, & Chetty, 2009). Ex: Usually Granodiorite, Tonalite. Granulite facies amphibole (pargasite) in the olivine gabbro is distinguished from the amphibolite facies amphibole of dykes and gneiss by sodium content that reaches 4.2wt%. Leucogranulites from the Bohemian Massif. The Kimban Orogeny has affected much of the Gawler Craton. Minor quartzite bands and few-meter-thick layers of amphibolite are reported to occur at different tectonic levels of the Naspe Formation. Single zircon ages of migmatitic gneisses and granulites in the Obudu Plateau: Timing of granulite-facies metamorphism in southeastern Nigeria. The amphibolite to granulite facies rocks overlying the MCT occupies a vast expanse of Bhutan and is named the Thimphu Group/Great Himalayan Zone/HHC/Tibetan Slab (Fig. A metamorphic facies is a set of mineral assemblages in metamorphic rocks formed under similar pressures and temperatures. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. The plume-related riftogenic and spreading processes within the continental areas can be attributed to “weak attempts” to disrupt the supercontinent (Mints, 1998). Contrasting behaviour of rare earth and major elements during partial melting in granulite facies migmatites, Wuluma Hills, Arunta Block, central Australia. Orthophosphate and biotite chemistry from orthopyroxene-bearing migmatites from California and South India: The role of a fluid-phase in the evolution of granulite-facies migmatites. Divergent boundaries are characterized by a rift in the surface of the earth along the midocean ridges. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. The third major kind of regional tectonic overprint is the Early Cretaceous mélange that is present as belts in and between the Rakaia and Pahau terranes. A variety of mechanisms for generating low aH2O fluids have been proposed, including infiltration of connate brines or fluids equilibrated with metaevaporites, loss of H2O to anatectic melts leaving behind residual fluids enriched in salts and CO2 (Fyfe, 1973; Philippot, 1993), release of brines and CO2 from deep crustal intrusions (Hansen et al., 1995), and loss of H2O to retrograde rehydration reactions (Markl et al., 1998). The Haast Schist of Jurassic–Cretaceous pumpellyite–actinolite to amphibolite facies overprints the Caples, Bay of Islands, and Rakaia terranes. A metamorphic facies is a set of mineral assemblages in metamorphic rocks formed under similar pressures and temperatures. Episodes of tectonic activity were previously described as orogenies. The Takhsang Formation is composed of garnet–sillimanite–biotite gneiss largely devoid of muscovite (Golani, 1995, p. 96), which, if present, occurs as a second-generation grain. Grujic et al. Origin and evolution of FeAl-granulite in the thermal aureole of the Chilka Lake anorthosite, Eastern Ghats Province, India. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128020210000085, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123693969003191, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166263504800057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128098394000047, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012804441400002X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123693969003920, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128044414000067, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080437516030231, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123693969003907, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489095476, Clark, Collins, Kinny, Timms, & Chetty, 2009, Regionally extensive metamorphic overprints include Devonian and Cretaceous polymetamorphic amphibolite–, Several studies have attempted to correlate and compare the widespread mid-Mesoproterozoic, Henderson, Collins, Payne, Forbes, & Saha, 2014, Vijaya Kumar, Ernst, Leelanandam, Wooden, & Groves, 2009, Bose, Dunkley, Dasgupta, Das, & Arim, 2011. The geochemical characteristics of granites from the NGB indicate a dominant calc–alkaline nature consistent with their formation in a convergent margin in an island arc setting at around 2.5 Ga. Farther north is a granulite facies gneiss complex, the Qinling Group, which has ultramafic slivers and includes the remnants of an island arc with two bounding suture zones. The assemblage is typical of what is formed in conditions corresponding to an area on the two dimensional graph of temperature vs. pressure (See diagram in Figure 1). As already discussed, medium-pressure regional metamorphic zones are best developed in Al-rich metapelitic rocks, which may contain either kyanite or sillimanite, or both Al-silicates. Exhumation of granulite-facies terranes may occur through their involvement in a separate tectonic event sometime after their high-T formation (Ellis, 1987; Harley, 1989). Accessory Mineral Behaviour in Granulite Migmatites: a Case Study from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, India. Ultra-high temperature overprinting of high pressure pelitic granulites in the Huai'an complex, North China Craton: Evidence from thermodynamic modeling and isotope geochronology. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis, Pakistan Himalayas, on the Indus gorge transect: The importance of early events. In the Gawler Craton, Archaean gneissic rocks of the Sleaford and Mulgathing complexes were deformed, metamorphosed to granulite facies, and intruded by granites during the Sleafordian Orogeny 2550–2400 Ma (Figure 2). Kyanite occurs in muscovite-rich parts of the schists. Phase relations and fluid inclusion evidence indicate greatly reduced water activity (aH2O) in the granulite facies (cf. Lithoprobe—parameters, processes, and the evolution of a continent Experimental Study of the Melting Reaction and Genetic Mechanism of Mineral Phase Transformation in Granulite Facies Metamorphism. Swapp and Holister (1991) studied the amphibolite and sillimanite–granulite facies rocks of Gansser (1983). Metamorphism probably took place in the deep parts of a Jurassic–Early Cretaceous accretionary wedge. J.J. Ague, in Treatise on Geochemistry, 2003. Decompression mineral microtextures in granulites of the Irkut block (Sharyzhalgai uplift of the Siberian Platform). Richard Palin (2008): P-T-time paths and tectonic correlation in the Karakoram Metamorphic Complex. If both chlorine and CO2 contents are high, then it is likely that immiscible CO2-rich and chlorine-rich fluids would coexist at high P and T (Duan et al., 1995; Schmidt and Bodnar, 2000), consistent with fluid inclusion evidence for multi-phase granulite facies fluids (Touret, 1985; Crawford and Hollister, 1986). 322. Roy, Ritesh Purohit, in Indian Shield, 2018. Geochemical signatures of metasedimentary rocks of high-pressure granulite facies and their relation with partial melting: Carvalhos Klippe, Southern Brasília Belt, Brazil. The so-commonly observed high T, low P phase (M2) at the high levels of the HHC, according to them, might have an initial stage of higher T and P. Pecher and Le Fort (1986) incorporated the work of Gansser (1983) in their metamorphic map of Central Himalaya (see Fig. mean1 Median ±1σ 1 Archaean gneisses 95 3000– 2500 Dominantly tona-litic to granitic gneisses Early Proterozoic (c. 2.0–1.8 Ga) amphibo-lite- to granulite-facies metamorphism. [1] The assemblage is typical of what is formed in conditions corresponding to an area on the two dimensional graph of temperature vs. pressure (See diagram in Figure 1). During this model of accretionary orogenesis, the EGMB might be behaving like an advancing orogen at that time due to the closure of ocean basins. A – type granite this type is formed from per-alkaline to alkaline magma (Al2O3 < Na2O + K2O) which forms Alkali Feldspar Granite from partial melting of continental crust and granulite rocks or fractionation in the crust. This new understanding will result directly in decreasing the number of orogenic belts that can be interpreted plausibly as sutures. With the recognition that much of the intrusion, metamorphism, and deformation in the Buller and Takaka terranes (‘Tuhua Orogen’) occurred during the Cretaceous (of ‘Rangitata’ age), the orogen terminology became obsolete. McGraw-Hill. A thrust (Takhsang Thrust) separates the Takhsang Formation from the underlying Naspe Formation. In north-central Bhutan northeast of Thimphu, Swapp and Hollister (1991) studied metamorphic textures and assemblages in the higher levels of the HHC (Tibetan Slab), which they divided into a Lower Structural Level (LSL) and a Higher Structural Level (HSL) zone. Ma c dykes as monitors of hp granulite facies metamorphism in the Grenville front tectonic zone (western Quebec) Jacques Martignole, Jean-Emmanuel Martelat To cite this version: Jacques Martignole, Jean-Emmanuel Martelat. Anatexis during High-pressure Crustal Metamorphism: Evidence from 8.3D). The postkinematic mineral assemblages, however, formed at around 640°C and 6 kb. Metamorphic Petrology: Mineralogical, Field, and Tectonic Aspects. time and in different tectonic settings? The assemblage is typical of what is formed in conditions corresponding to an area on the two dimensional graph of temperature vs. pressure (See diagram in Figure 1). Another possible aspect in such comparisons is with regard to the source rocks for the sedimentary protoliths of EGMB-south. Grew and Manton (1986) reported 2507 and 2520 Ma age from the study of allanite in pegmatoid veins cutting across amphibolite in the Kabbaldurga Charnockite. Large‐scale melt‐depletion in granulite terranes: an example from the Archean Ashuanipi Subprovince of Quebec. 2010). In the Curnamona Craton, the shallow-marine, immature clastic sedimentary rocks and bimodal volcanics of the Willyama Supergroup were deposited between ∼1715 and ∼1645 Ma. ... granulite facies of high-pressure influences during Granulite facies metamorphism in the Mallee Bore area, northern Harts Range: implications for the thermal evolution of the eastern Arunta Inlier, central Australia. U–Pb SHRIMP ages and tectonic setting of the Munster Suite of the Margate Terrane of the Natal Metamorphic Belt. The characteristic features which shed light on their P-T history are reviewed by . Geologic setting 2.1 Regional geology The eastern Himalayan syntaxis (EHS) (Fig.1) is the eastern termination of the TRK Chetty, in Proterozoic Orogens of India, 2017. Palinspastic (pre-rift and -drift) fit of India and conjugate Antarctica and geological connections across the suture. 6.12) in the following stages: (1) 1.7–1.5 Ga: Archean cratons (Dharwar, Bastar, and Napier) became sutured by fringing orogens (Karimnagar-Bhopalpatnam, CITZ, EGMB, Kemp Land), followed by narrow divergence of the Napier Craton from the Indian composite, (2) 1.3–0.9 Ga: initial 1.3 Ga convergence of India and Antarctica proceeding to final 1.0–0.9 Ga collision during the assembly of Rodinia. On ultrahigh temperature crustal metamorphism: Phase equilibria, trace element thermometry, bulk composition, heat sources, timescales and tectonic settings. Petrological studies of metagabbros from the southwest periphery of the Biligirirangan Block reveal clockwise prograde and retrograde metamorphism in a subduction zone setting at a HP of 18–19 kbar and temperature of ~840°C (Ratheesh-Kumar et al., 2016). Charnockites, pyroxene granulites, and garnet-cordierite gneisses at a boundary between Early Svecofennian rocks and Småland-Värmland granitoids, Karlskoga, southern Sweden. The mass balance of dehydration melting in typical biotite gneiss and metapelite shows that the proportion of melt in the product assemblage at T± 850°C is relatively small (10–20%), and probably insufficient to mobilize a partially melted rock body. Santosh & Kusky 2010; Santosh alet. Besides, the mafic granulite lenses hosted within the opx–ksp gneiss also show a metamorphic age of ∼255 Ma (Chen et al., 2006). The granulite-facies metamorphism with peak P-T conditions at 718–729 ºC and 0.46–0.53 GPa is characterized by an anticlockwise P-T path. Isotopic constraints on fluid infiltration from an eclogite facies shear zone, Holsenøy, Norway. At least 12 granulite occurrences, ranging in size from a few 10’s to 250,000 km2, are exposed in the Archean Superior Province. Melt segregation rates in migmatites: review and critique of common approaches. Timing and conditions of regional metamorphism and crustal shearing in the granulite facies basement of south Namibia: Implications for the crustal evolution of the Namaqualand metamorphic basement in the Mesoproterozoic. Clockwise, low- metamorphism of the Aus granulite terrain, southern Namibia, during the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua Orogeny. The Kararan Orogeny is coincident with the Argilke and Chewings events in the southern Arunta Inlier, with the deposition of the Mount Barren Group and the reactivation of the Capricorn Orogen in the West Australian Craton, and with the development of the Calvert and Isa superbasins on the North Australian Craton (Figure 4). Equilibria involving melt and solid phases are effective buffers of aH2,o. A Anatectic melt volumes in the thermal aureole of the Etive Complex, Scotland: the roles of fluid‐present and fluid‐absent melting. Thermal perturbation on a regional scale might have been induced by asthenospheric upwelling following slab break-off at relatively shallow depth and consequent production of basaltic magma emplaced in the lower crust. Thermal granulite‐facies metamorphism with diffuse retrogression in Archaean orthogneisses, Fiskefjord, southern West Greenland. Growth of anhydrous poikiloblasts in matrix regions, development of anhydrous haloes around segregations and formation of dehydrated margins on metabasic layers enclosed in migmatitic metapelites all imply local gradients in water activity. The latest, most widespread and intense event at c.1150 Ma gave rise to low-P granulites which record an anticlockwise P-T path and were accompanied by gneissic granite and charnockite. Abstract In the Gawler Craton, Archaean gneissic rocks of the Sleaford and Mulgathing complexes were deformed, metamorphosed to, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Most metamorphic terranes, especially in the internal parts of continents, are composed of greenschist, amphibolite, and. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, vol. This metamorphism preserves important records of the tectonic history of orogenic belts and the formation of cratons. Curiously, granulite facies terrains of Brazil are not cited, possibly due to the paucity of published P-T data on Brazilian granu- lites in international journals. Grujic et al. The Archaean architecture of the complex was completed by intrusion of granite sheets and pegmatites around 2,550 Ma, mainly in the Outer Hebrides. Mineral assemblages and microstructures indicate that these rocks were affected by granulite-facies metamorphism and anatexis followed by decompression and cooling. Tectonic setting is Arc collision. The third phase of the orogeny took place between 1745 and 1690 Ma and involved deformation, medium-grade metamorphism, and further granite intrusion (Figure 4). Rocks which contain certain minerals can therefore be linked to certain tectonicsettings, times and places in the geological history of the area. Several studies have attempted to correlate and compare the widespread mid-Mesoproterozoic granulite facies rocks of the EGMB-south with the similar metamorphic conditions in the rocks of Napier complex of east Antarctica in reconstructing the models of Gondwana. A metamorphic facies is a set of mineral assemblages in metamorphic rocks formed under similar pressures and temperatures. Features of the amphibolite–granulite facies boundary (line 3, in Figure 5) and the lower limit of the greenschist facies (line 1, in Figure 5) have been briefly discussed. An interesting information favouring continuity of Dharwar belt further south comes from the study of trace element chemistry of charnockites and the associated granites (Mahabeleshwar and Peucat, 1988; Mahabeleshwar et al., 1995). Metamorphism of Quartzofeldspathic Rocks. In the early 1980s it was realized that the Mesozoic Rangitata Orogeny was probably a composite of an older subduction-related event and a younger extension-related event. (2012) The recognition of c. 1760–1600 Ma events in EGMB-south can be related to the accretionary history of Columbia that formed at c. 2100–1800 Ma prior to Rodinia.

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